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Unit 1 How can we become good learners? Section A 怎么能成为一个好的倾听者?

by + doing 通过…… (教材Page 1 1a) 介词by可以用来表示方位、时间、手段等,其用法在中...

  1. by + doing 通过…… (教材Page 1 1a

介词by可以用来表示方位、时间、手段等,其用法在中考中曾多次出现。

(1)by意为"通过……,靠……,凭……",其后加名词、代词或动词­ing形式,在句中作方式状语。可以用来回答how引导的疑问句。

►He had to do all the work by hand. 所有的工作他都要靠手工完成。

►You can practice soccer by joining a sports club. 你可以通过加入体育俱乐部来练习足球。

►We learn by studying with a group. 我们通过小组活动来学习。

—How do you learn English words?

—________ making flashcards.

  1. To B. By C. For                          D. With

(2)by+地点名词。表方位,意为"在……旁边"。

►We live by the sea. 我们住在海边。

(3)by+时间名词。意为"到……时为止(已发生某事);最晚、不迟于……;在……之前",此时谓语可用完成时。如:by now/then/this time/next Friday/the end of last year/three o’clock等。

►I must be in bed by ten o’clock. 我必须在10点之前睡觉。

【典例】________ the time I got to the bus stop, the bus had already left.

  1. On B. In                            C. By                      D. With

【答案】C

【解析】考查介词的用法。句意:当我到公交车车站时,公交车已经走了。by the time"到……时为止"。

(4)by+交通工具、交通方式名词(名词前不加冠词,不变复数)。意为"通过……,由……,乘……"。

如:by train / taxi / bus / bike/ boat / sea / water / air等。

►I went to Beijing by plane. 我乘飞机去了北京。

【典例】Her mother goes to work ________ bus every morning.

  1. by   B. at
  2. on   D. in

【答案】A

【解析】考查介词的用法。句意:她妈妈每天早晨坐公共汽车去上班。by bus为固定搭配,意思是"乘坐公共汽车"。

【辨析】by, with与in的区别

易混词 含义 用法 例句
by 使用某种方式、方法或使用交通工具,还可表示"在……旁"。 后接名词、代词或动名词。 I live by the river. 我住在河边。
with 使用某种工具或身体的某个部位。 后接名词或代词。 Liu Wei can play the piano very well with his feet. 刘伟会用双脚将钢琴弹得很好。
in 使用语言、语调、笔墨或颜色。 后接名词或代词。 We don’t write letters in red. 我们不用红笔写信。
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【典例】You can study the grammar             memorizing it .

  1. with                                                B. by
  2. on                                                  D. at

【答案】B

【拓展】by的常见短语:

by means of 通过……的方式             by way of通过……的方式                 by the way 顺便说一下

one by one 一个接一个                            step by step一步接一步                            side by side肩并肩

by oneself独自                                  by birth生来,在血统上             take. . . by surprise使某人大吃一惊

learn. . . by heart仔细地学,用心地学

  1. ask sb. for help 向某人寻求帮助 (教材Page 1 1a

ask(sb. )for sth. 请求(某人)给予某物

ask sb. (not)to do sth. 请/让某人(不要)做某事

ask sb. sth. 问某人某事

ask(sb. )about sth. 询问(某人)关于某事的情况

►You can ask any one for help if you have problems. 如果有困难,你可以向任何人寻求帮助。

【典例】—I often make mistakes ____________ grammar.

—Why not ask your teacher ___________ help?

  1. in; to                                                      B. in; for
  2. at; to                                                        D. at; for

【答案】B

  1. aloud adv. 大声地;出声地 (教材Page 2 2a

【辨析】aloud, loud 和 loudly的区别。

易混词 用法 例句
aloud 强调发出的声音能被听见,意为"出声地或大声地",常与read,call 等动词连用。 Please read the text aloud. 请大声朗读一下课文。
loud 意为"响亮地,大声或高声地",侧重发出的音量大,传得远,一般多用来修饰 speak,talk,laugh 等动词。loud 还可用作形容词。 Speak louder please, or no one will hear you. 请大声些,否则没人能听见。
loudly 意为"响亮地",基本意义与 loud 相同,常与 ring,knock 等动词连用。loudly 放在动词前后均可,含有"喧闹"或"嘈杂"的意味。 Suddenly the bell on the wall rang loudly. 突然,墙上的铃大声地响起来。
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【典例】Don’t talk ____________. Your grandmother is sleeping now.

  1. loud                                                    B. aloud
  2. loudly                                                 D. hard

【答案】C

【解析】由后句句意"你奶奶正在睡觉"可知前句句意为"不要大声说话",由此可知,此处指"大声地",故用loudly。

  1. secret n. 秘密;秘诀 adj. 秘密的,保密的 (教材Page 3 3a

(1)作名词时,意为"秘密;秘诀;奥秘"。

►the secret of success成功的诀窍

►the secret of nature自然界的奥秘

►keep a secret/keep sth. a secret/keep it a secret保守秘密

►in secret秘密地,暗中;私下里

(2)作形容词时,意为"秘密的,保密的"。

►a secret door 暗门

【典例】—Tommy, you can never let others know what I have told you today.

—Don’t worry. I will keep the ____________.

  1. secret                                    B. money
  2. address                                    D. grade

【答案】A

  1. afraid adj. 害怕的,怕的 (教材Page 3 3a

【用法】① be afraid of sth. /doing sth. 害怕某物/做某事

② be afraid to do sth. 害怕做某事

③ be afraid that +从句 害怕……

►Don’t be afraid of snakes. 别怕蛇。

►It seems that she is afraid to tell them about it. 似乎她怕将此事告诉他们。

►She was afraid that she might lose her job. 她担心会丢掉工作。

还可用于提出异议,告诉不好的消息等场合,使语气婉转,意为"恐怕,遗憾"。

►I’m afraid I can’t help you. 对不起,我不能帮你。

【典例】Jenny used to be afraid to ___________ in class, so she always ___________ nothing.

  1. speak; say               B. speak; said                    C. spoke; say

【答案】B

【解析】be afraid to do sth. 害怕做某事,由"used to"可知此句应用一般过去时,故选B。

  1. What about listening to tapes?听听磁带怎么样呢?

What about. . . ? 意为"……怎么样?",相当于How about…?,about是介词,后面跟名词、代词或动名词。

【拓展】表示建议的句型还有:

①Why don’t you…?

②Why not…?

③Would you mind…?

④Could you please…?

  1. It’s too hard to understand spoken English. 这太难了,而理解不了口语。

too. . . to. . . 表示"太……而不能……",此结构本身具有否定的含义,相当于not. . . enough to. . . 。

spoken是speak的形容词形式,意思是"口语的",作定语,修饰English。

  1. The more you read, the faster you’ll be. 读得越多就会变得越快。

"the +比较级…,the+比较级…",表示"越……越……"。

►The harder you work, the greater progress you will make. 你越用功,进步就越大。

  1. The teacher spoke so quickly that I did not understand her most of the time.
  2. . . that. . . 引导结果状语从句,从句中表示主句导致的结果。

so that引导目的状语从句,从句中一般有表示"能够"的词出现。

►She studies hard so that she can go to college. 她努力学习为了能够上大学。

  1. I discovered that listening to something interesting is the secret to language learning.

listening to something interesting在宾语从句中作主语,使用动名词形式,谓语动词使用单数形式。

something是不定代词,形容词interesting修饰不定代词时要放在不定代词的后面。学科#网

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