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Unit 4 I used to be afraid of the dark. Section A 我害怕晚上

Mario, you used to be short, didn’t you? 马里奥,你过去很矮,是吗?(...

  1. Mario, you used to be short, didn’t you? 马里奥,你过去很矮,是吗?(Page 25 1a

(1)used to意为"过去常常",后接动词原形,表示过去经常发生的动作或存在的状态(暗含现在已经不复存在)。

►He used to play basketball at school. 他过去常常在学校里打篮球。

►He used to walk to school. 他过去常常步行去上学。

【辨析】used to do sth., be used to do sth.与be used to doing sth.

used to do sth. 过去常常做某事,只用于过去时态 He used to go to sleep at 9 o’ clock in the evening. 他过去常常在晚上9点钟睡觉。
be used to do sth. 被用于做某事,是被动语态,不定式表目的,可用于多种时态 Wood is used to make houses. 木材被用来造房子。
be used to doing sth. 习惯于做某事,可用于现在、过去、将来等多种时态 He is used to going to sleep early.他习惯于早睡。
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【典例】Li Ming used _____________ on the right in China, but he soon got used _____________ on the left in England.

  1. to drive; to drive B. driving; driving             C. to driving; to drive         D. to drive; to driving

【答案】D

(2) 本句是一个反意疑问句,反意疑问句的特点是"前肯后否"或"前否后肯"。

►You are a student, aren’t you? 你是个学生,对吗?

►We can’t take books out, can we? 我们不能把书拿出去,对吗?

【助记】

反意疑问句的用法
反意问句要点三,前后谓语正相反;
附加问句not现,必须缩写是习惯;
最后一点应注意,问句主语代词替。

【拓展】反意疑问句的用法

①回答反意疑问句和回答一般疑问句一样,如果答语是肯定的,用"Yes + 肯定结构";如果答语是否定的,则用"No + 否定结构"。

►—He enjoys singing, doesn’ t he? 他喜欢唱歌,是吗?

—Yes, he does./No, he doesn’ t. 对,是的。/不,不是。

②回答陈述部分为否定句的反意疑问句时,yes或no的汉语意思与其本身的词义相反。

—You didn’ t go to school, did you? 你没有去上学,是吗?

—Yes, I did./No, I didn’ t. 不,我去了。/是的,我没有去。学科&网

【助记】反意疑问句的回答方法

回答反意疑问句,答案含义是依据,肯定事实用yes,否定事实用no替。

【典例】He can hardly stay awake because he is so tired, ________?

  1. does he B. isn’t he                  C. can’t he                               D. can he

【答案】D

【解析】句中关键词hardly(几乎不)表否定含义,故附加疑问部分用肯定形式,可排除B、C两项;由主句中的情态动词can可知选D。

  1. see sb. doing sth. 看见某人正在做某事 (Page 26 2d

此结构中doing sth.作宾语补足语,强调动作正在进行。而see sb. do sth. 看见某人做了某事,强调看见动作发生的全过程或看到动作经常发生。

►I saw him playing football on the playground. 我看见他正在操场上踢足球。

►I saw her run into the room. 我看见她跑进房间去了。

【典例】When I walked past the park, I saw some old people ________ Chinese Taiji.

  1. do B. did                               C. doing                     D. are doing

【答案】C

  1. deal with 应对;处理 (Page 27 3a

【辨析】deal with与do with

(1) deal with与do with两者都可以用来表示"处理",前者侧重于方式、方法,后者侧重于对象。在句中,deal with与how连用,do with则与what连用。

►I don’t know how they deal with the problem. = I don’t know what they do with the problem. 我不知道他们如何处理这个问题。

(2)deal with 还意为"应付;涉及;论及"。

►He’s good at dealing with pressure. 他善于应付压力。

【典例】(2015 • 河南)Jane is very busy these days, for she has a lot of problems to ________.

  1. deal with B. keep us with                  C. agree with                    D. come up with

【答案】A

  1. in front of 在……前面 (Page 27 3a

【辨析】in front of 和in the front of

in front of 在……的前面 强调在某一物体外部的前面
in the front of 在……的前部 强调在某一物体内部的前面
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in front of the car                      in the front of the car

【典例】(2015 • 南宁)Jim sits behind me, so I sit ________ him.

  1. at the top of B. at the end of                  C. in the middle of                    D. in front of

【答案】D

【解析】at the top of 在……的顶端;at the end of"在……的末尾"; in the middle of"在……的中间";in front of "在……的前面"。由句意可知选D。

  1. too much太多 (Page 27 3a)

此处too much意为"太多的",后接不可数名词。

He has too much homework to do. 他有太多的家庭作业要做。

【辨析】too many, too much与much too

too many 修饰可数名词复数形式,意为"太多的"。
too much 相当于一个形容词,修饰不可数名词,意为"太多的";相当于一个副词,在句中作状语,意为"太多"。
much too 修饰形容词或副词,意为"太,非常"。
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►There are too many passengers on the bus.

►There is too much noise in the classroom.

►She talked too much. 她话说得太多。

【助记】too much, much too 与too many的用法区别

too much, much too, 用法区别看后头。

much后跟不可数,too后只跟形或副。

too many要记住,后面名词必复数。

【典例】(2015 • 贵州黔东南)—He’ s ________ the plan.

—So am I. It costs ________ and we have no enough time.

  1. for; too much B. against; too much           C.with; much too               D. of; much too

【答案】B

  1. a very small number of 极少数…… (Page 27 3a)

后接复数名词,在句中作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。a number of意为"许多;大量"。

【辨析】a number of 与 the number of

a number of 许多…… 后接可数名词复数作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式
the number of ……的数量 后接可数名词复数作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式
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►A number of apples are red. 许多苹果是红色的。

►The number of students is 2, 000. 学生的数量是2000。

【典例】(2015 • 四川眉山)In our school library there ________ a number of books and the number of them ________ growing larger and larger.

  1. is; are           B. has; is                C. are; is                 D. have; are

【答案】C

【解析】由题干可知,本句为there be句型,它不能与have/has 连用,排除B、D项;a number of + 复数名词意为"许多……",作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式;the number of + 复数名词/代词意为"……的数量",作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。故选C。

  1. What’ s sb. like? 某人长什么样?

►—What’ s your brother like? 你哥哥长什么样子?

—He is tall and a little thin. 他长得高并且有点瘦。

What’ s sb. like?=What does sb. look like?但be like不能与look like同时出现,此时like是介词,无词形变化。

►—What is Tom like? (=What does Tom look like?) 汤姆长什么模样?

—He is very much like his father, tall and dark. 他非常像他的父亲,又高又黑。

【拓展】What is sb. like? 还可用来询问某人的品质。

►—What is Lily like? 莉莉是怎样的一个人?

—She’ s a very nice girl. 她是个非常好的女孩。

【典例】What ________ Mr Wei ________ ?

  1. is;like B. does;be like                    C. is;look like              D. is;likes

【答案】A

【解析】考查固定句型。询问某人长相的句型是What’ s sb. like?或What does sb. look like?

  1. silent /’ saɪlənt/ adj. 不说话的;沉默的

►My brother used to be silent. 我哥哥过去不爱说话。

silent的相关短语:

keep silent 保持沉默

►Do you know when you should keep silent? 你知道你该什么时候保持沉默吗?

【拓展】silent的名词形式是silence,常用短语in silence沉默地。

►All of us are reading the test papers in silence. 我们大家正在默默地阅读试卷。

【典例】We felt strange about his ________ (silent) at the party as he used to be very outgoing.

  1. helpful /’ helpfl/ adj. 有用的;有帮助的

►Leo and Nick are helpful. Each of us likes them. 莱奥和尼克乐于助人,我们大家都喜欢他们。

helpful的相关短语:

be helpful to sb. 对某人有帮助

►This book is helpful to us. 这本书对我们有帮助。

【拓展】helpful是在help后加形容词后缀-ful构成的形容词。类似的词还有:

thank(v. 感谢)—thankful (adj. 感谢的)

care(n. 小心)—careful (adj. 小心的)

【典例】It’ s very ________ (有帮助的) to discuss your problems with your parents.

【答案】helpful

  1. such /sʌtʃ/ adj.如此的;这样的

such用作形容词,修饰名词。主要用法有:

(1)such+a(an)+adj.+单数可数名词+that从句。学科&网

►He got such a bad cold that he coughed day and night. 他得了如此重的感冒以至于整日整夜咳嗽。

(2)such+adj.+不可数名词+that从句。

►She has made such great progress that many people like her. 她取得如此大的进步,许多人都喜欢她。

(3)such+adj.+名词复数+that从句。

►They are such interesting books that we all like them. 它们是如此有趣的书,我们都喜欢它们。

【辨析】such与so

用法 含义 例句
such 修饰名词 如此的;这样的 He is such a kind man.=He is so kind a man. 他是如此和蔼的一个男人。
so 修饰形容词或副词 如此;这样
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  1. It’ s been (is) 一段时间+since... 自……以来有一段时间了。

此结构中主句动词是has been或is,since引导的从句常用一般过去时。

►It has been (is) two years since his father died. (=His father has been dead for two years. =His father died two years ago.)他父亲去世两年了。

【注意】除此结构外,since引导的时间状语从句通常用一般过去时,其主句常用现在完成时。且也可和此结构相互转换。

►Miss Brown has lived there for three years since she moved there.(=It has been three years since Miss Brown moved there.) 自从布朗小姐搬到那里,她已住在那里三年了。

【典例】It’s been twenty-two years since I ________(work) here.

【答案】worked

  1. interview /'ɪntə(r)vjuː/ v. 采访;面试 n. 面试;访谈

interview作动词时,后接某人作宾语,表示"采访某人,面试某人",短语interview sb. about sth.表示

"采访某人关于某事";作名词时,构成短语have an interview with sb.表示"采访某人"。

►Peter interviewed Mr White yesterday. 彼得昨天采访了怀特先生。

►We will interview the great man about his life tomorrow. 明天我们将采访这个杰出的人,了解他的生活。

►The reporter had an interview with the winner of the competition. 那位记者对这次竞赛的获胜者进行了采访。

interviewer n. 面试者;采访者

interviewee n. 被访问者;被采访者

  1. 19-year-old 十九岁的

►He is a 19-year-old young man. 他是一个十九岁的年轻男人。

19-year-old为复合形容词,由"数词+名词(单数)+形容词"构成,而且三者之间要用"-"来连接。用作定语。

【典例】The winner of the singing competition was a ________ girl named Zhang Mei from China.

  1. 19-years-old B. 19-year-old C. 19-year-olds

【答案】B

【解析】构成复合形容词的各单词间用连字符"-"连接,而且名词用单数。

  1. take up 开始从事

take up此处意为"开始从事",后接名词或动名词作宾语。

►They have taken up golf. 他们开始学起打高尔夫球了。

►Jack took up running for exercise to lose weight this month. 杰克这个月开始通过跑步锻炼来减肥。

【拓展】take up还可意为"占,占地方"。

►Learning English takes up a lot of my time. 学英语占据了我许多时间。

►That big table takes up too much room. 那张大桌子占的地方太大了。

【典例】Bob is taking the desks away because they ________ too much room.

  1. stand up                                        B. pick up
  2. take up D. listen up

【答案】C

  1. require /rɪ’ kwaɪə(r)/ v. 需要;要求

►These pets require a lot of care and attention. 这些宠物需要悉心照顾。

require通常不用于进行时;require常用在"require+宾语+动词不定式"结构中。

►They required me to keep silent. 他们要求我保持沉默。

【典例】It’s well-known that learning English well ________time and efforts.

  1. requires B. wastes C. takes

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