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Unit 6 When was it invented? -Section B

in the end 最后;最终 (Page 45 1c) 其后不接of短语,相当于at last, fina...

  1. in the end 最后;最终 (Page 45 1c)

其后不接of短语,相当于at last, finally。此短语强调经过许多变化莫测的情况之后某事才发生。

►They were out of danger in the end. 他们最后脱险了。

【拓展】(1)at the end of...后接地点名词时,表示"在……尽头";后接表示时间的名词时,表示"在……结束时"。

►Walk along the street and you’ll find the hospital at the end of the street. 沿着这条街走,在街道的尽头你就会找到那家医院。

(2)by the end of...意为"在……以前; 到……为止",常用于将来时态或过去完成时态的句子中。

►We will finish the work by the end of this year. 我们在今年年底以前就会完成这项工作。

  1. Canadian adj. 加拿大的;加拿大的 (Page 46 2b)

►Her sister is a Canadian teacher. 她的姐姐是一位加拿大教师。

【拓展】Canadian用作可数名词,意为"加拿大人"。其复数形式为Canadians。

►Two Canadians are taking photos in the park. 两名加拿大人正在公园里拍照。

【助记】Canada(加拿大)       Canadian (加拿大人)

Australia (澳大利亚)       Australian (澳大利亚人)

America (美国;美洲)       American (美国人;美洲人)

  1. divide...into把……分开 (Page 46 2b

其被动结构为 be divided into,意为"被分为……"。

►Let’s divide ourselves into several groups. 让我们分成几个小组吧。

divide 及物动词,意为"分开;分散",指把整体分成若干部分。

►He divided the cake among the children. 他把这个蛋糕分给了孩子们。

【典例】My P. E. teacher ____________ us ____________ (把……分成) two teams and asked us to play games.

  1. encourage sb. to do sth. 鼓励某人做某事 (Page 46 2b

►The teacher often encourages us to study hard. 老师经常鼓励我们要努力学习。

【拓展】encourage sb. in sth. 意为"在……方面助长某人的某种行为/鼓励某人"。

►Don’t encourage him in laziness. 别助长他的懒惰行为。

【典例】Jessica’s parents always encourage her ____________ out her opinions.

  1. speak B. speaking               C. to speak                D. will speak
  2. nearly adv. 几乎;差不多;将近 (Page 48 Self Check

►It took nearly two hours to get there. 到那里花了将近两个小时。

【辨析】nearly与almost

两者均有"几乎;差不多;将近"之意,有时可通用,具体区别如下表:

nearly 几乎;差不多;将近 可以和not连用,not nearly 意为"远非,绝不是";nearly前可用very,pretty等词修饰。
almost 几乎;差不多 可以和no, never, nothing等表示否定意义的词连用,但不与not连用
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►We’ve saved some money, but it’s not nearly enough. 我们存了一点儿钱,但还远远不够。

►I almost never see her. 我几乎从未见过她。

  1. at a low price 以低价

►This sweater is on sale at a low price. 这件毛衣正以低价出售。

low形容词,意为"低的"。

►She jumped over the low wall. 她跳过了那堵矮墙。

【拓展】"高低贵贱"的用法:

low 主语是价格,不能是物品本身
high
cheap 廉价;便宜的 主语不能是价格,必须是物品本身
expensive 昂贵的;花钱多的
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►Today in Tokyo the lowest temperature is 16℃, and the highest is 28℃. 今天东京的最低气温是16℃,最高气温是28℃。

►The price of this watch is very high. 这只表的价格很高。

►The price of this book is not low for me. 这本书的价格对我来说不低。

►This watch is expensive. 这只表很贵。

►This cloth doll is very cheap. 这个布娃娃很便宜。

【典例】At present, the price of the houses in Urumqi ____________ than before. I can afford ____________ a large one.

  1. are cheaper; to buy B. is cheaper; buy
  2. are lower; buy D. is lower; to buy

【答案】D

  1. translate /træns’leɪt/ v. 翻译

translate... into ...意为"把……翻译成……",既可用于主动语态中,也可用于被动语态中。

►Don’t translate everything into Chinese when you read English articles. 当你阅读英语文章时,不要把所有的东西都翻译成汉语。

►Will the book be translated into English as soon as possible? 这本书会尽快翻译成英文吗?

【典例】Do you know Mo Yan? His books ____________ into English a few years ago.

  1. were translated B. translated
  2. are translated D. translates

【答案】A

【解析】本题用语法判定法解题。句意:你知道莫言吗?他的书几年前被翻译成英文。本句为被动语态,根据句中的时间状语a few years ago可知用一般过去时。

【拓展】translation n. 翻译    translator n. 翻译家

  1. by mistake 错误地;无意中

►I took your bag by mistake. 我错拿了你的包。

【注意】by 与mistake之间不加冠词,是介词短语,在句中作状语。

【典例】—Where is my book?

—Oh, sorry! I have taken yours ____________ mistake.

  1. by B. by a                   C. with                      D. with a

【答案】A

【解析】by mistake 错误地;无意中。

  1. the Olympics 奥林匹克运动会

与the Olympic Games同义,作主语时,谓语动词常用复数形式。

【典例】The 30th Olympics ____________ in London in 2012.

  1. held B. will be held
  2. were held D. has been held

【答案】C

【解析】此题用主谓一致法。主语是复数,谓语动词用复数形式。主语与hold为动宾关系,要用被动语态,再由时间状语可知应用一般过去时的被动语态。

  1. stop ...from ... 阻止……做某事

stop sb.from doing sth.相当于prevent sb.from doing sth.,在主动语态中,两者中的from均可省略,但在被动语态中不可省略。

►No one can stop us (from) carrying out the plan. 没有人能阻止我们实施这个计划。

►The water must be prevented from polluting by us. 我们必须阻止水被污染。

【典例】I will try my best to stop my son from ____________ the same mistake.

  1. make B. made                C. makes                             D. making

【答案】D

  1. not only... but also... 不但……而且……

以not only ...but (also)... 连接的句子,当not only置于句首时往往引起部分倒装。

►Not only can I do it but (also) I can do it best. 我不仅能做到而且我能做得最好。

not only ... but also... 应连接两个对称的并列成分,连接两个主语时谓语动词要采用就近原则。

►Not only Mr. Lin but also his son loves the movie. 不但林先生而且他的儿子也喜欢这部电影。

【拓展】常见的就近原则的结构有:

(1) neither...nor... 既不……也不…… (两者都不)

►Neither you nor I like him. 我和你都不喜欢他。

(2)  either...or...不是……就是…… (两者中的一个)

►Either you or Lily is a student. 不是你就是莉莉是学生。

(3) there be结构

►There is a pen and two books on the desk. 书桌上有一支钢笔和两本书。

  1. look up to 钦佩;仰慕

►I looked up to Thomas Edison when I was a child.当我是个孩子的时候我很钦佩托马斯·爱迪生。

其反义短语是look down on 看不起,鄙视。

【拓展】look的常用短语:

look up 向上看;查阅(词典)                           look down 向下看

look after 照看;照顾                                     look around 环顾四周

look for 寻找                                                  look forward to 盼望

【典例】马云很成功,许多年轻人仰慕他。(look)

Ma Yun is so successful that many young people ____________ him.

【答案】look up to

  1. hero /’hɪərəʊ/ n. 英雄

►It is believed that all astronauts are real heroes. 人们认为所有的宇航员都是真正的英雄。

hero的复数形式是在其后加-es构成的。

【魔法记忆】巧记以o结尾加-es变复数的名词:

黑人(Negro) 英雄(hero)爱吃西红柿 (tomato) 炒土豆(potato)。

  1. This is because... 这是因为……

系动词之后是表语,表语是由一个句子充当的,即称为表语从句,连接表语从句的词有:because,why,that,what,who,when,where,which,whether,how等。

►All the cars are going slowly. This is because there is a thick fog. 所有的车都开得很慢,这是因为有浓雾。

►His bike was broken. That is why he came to school on foot. 他的自行车坏了。那就是他步行来学校的原因。

【典例】You have spent too much time playing computer games. That’s ____________ your eyes hurt.

  1. why B. how                         C. what                        D. when

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