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Unit 10You’re supposed to shake hands.你应该去握手。

Point 1 custom n. 风俗;习俗   (Page 73   1a) custom意为"风俗;习俗...

Point 1 custom n. 风俗;习俗   Page 73   1a

custom意为"风俗;习俗"。用作可数名词,表示某种习俗时可加不定冠词,指各种风俗习惯时也可用复数。

►This is an old custom in the country. 这是这个国家的一种旧风俗。

►Social customs are different from country to country. 各国的社会习俗是不同的。

【辨析】custom与habit

custom 长期以来形成的行为或习惯,即风俗习惯。 The first time Mary came to China, she didn’t know the customs in China. 玛丽初次来中国时,她不知道中国的风俗。
habit 指个人的习惯。 Children should get into the habit of going to bed and getting up early. 孩子们应该养成早睡早起的习惯。
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【拓展】customer n. 顾客,客户。是可数名词,复数形式为customers。

►Mr. Lin’s restaurant is often full of customers because foods and service there are the best. 林先生的餐馆经常挤满了顾客,因为那里的食物和服务是最好的。

【典例】It’s a _________ to give kids lucky money during the Spring Festival in China.

  1. habit        B. sign                     C. custom                 D. theme

【答案】C

Point 2 be expected to do... 应该做……    Page 73   1c

be expected to do sth. 意为"(某人)被期望做某事;应该做某事",此处相当于be supposed to do sth.。

►You’re expected to get good grades this term. 本学期你应该取得好成绩。

expect后接动词时要用其不定式形式。

►I didn’t expect to meet you here. 我没预料到会在这里遇到你。

expect sb. to do sth.表示"期望某人做某事"。

►I expect my son to go to college. 我期望我儿子上大学。

【辨析】wish, hope和expect的辨析

wish 意为"希望,想要",可加to do 作宾语。wish sb.to do sth. 意为

"希望某人做某事"。wish后可跟that从句,表"愿望",且从句多用虚拟语气。

I wish you to go with me. 我希望你和我一起去。
hope 意为"希望,期望",不能用hope sb.to do sth.,但可以用hope to do sth.。hope也可跟that从句,表"希望"。 I hope to visit Guilin. 我希望去参观桂林。
expect 意为"期待,期望,盼望"。强调客观上可能实现的"期望"。 The shop expects to make a small profit this year. 这家店铺期望今年能赚点儿钱。
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【典例】—Has Jane done the washing yet?

—You cannot _________ her to do such a thing.

  1. want B. hope                                    C. expect                D. wish

【答案】C

【解析】由语境可知你不能期望她做这样的事情。expect sb.to do sth. 期望某人做某事,故选C。

【拓展】expect意为"期望;预料;期待",后可接名词、代词、动词不定式或从句。其结构:expect to do sth. 意为"期待做某事";expect sb. to do sth.意为"期待某人做某事"。

►I expect a letter from my family. 我期待一封家书。

►She expects to come back next week. 她预计下个星期回来。

【典例】—Did you watch the football game yesterday?

—Yes, I did. John is really a dark horse. Nobody _________ him to go so far.

  1. wanted B. encouraged                            C. expected                       D. hoped

【答案】C

Point 3 greet v. 和……打招呼;迎接    Page 74  2d

greet及物动词,意为"问候;和……打招呼;迎接",相当于say hello to,后接名词或代词作宾语。

►We greeted her mother by saying"Good morning". 我们向她妈妈打招呼,说"早上好"。

►Mick greeted her with a kiss on each cheek. 米克亲吻她的双颊以表问候。

►The host greeted us at the gate. 主人在大门口迎接我们。

【拓展】greeting n. 问候;招呼

►He sends greetings to all the family. 他向全家问候。

【典例】Amy always _________ her classmates in a strange way.

  1. sees B. listens             C. greets             D. gives

【答案】C

【解析】see看见;listen听(不及物动词);greet问候,打招呼;give给。句意:埃米总是以一种奇怪的方式和她的同班同学们打招呼。

Point 4 as soon as 一……就……    Page 74   2d

as soon as引导时间状语从句时,主句用一般将来时,从句用一般现在时,即"主将从现"。

►I will call you as soon as I get there. 我一到那里就给你打电话。

【警示】"主将从现"一般出现在含有时间状语从句和条件状语从句的句子中。常见的用于时间状语从句的连词有as soon as, when, while, as, until等。常见的条件状语从句的连词有if, unless。

【典例】Next month we’re going somewhere interesting as soon as the holiday _________.

  1. will begin B. has begun                    C. begins                 D. is beginning

【答案】C

Point 5 to one’s surprise 让某人吃惊的是    Page 74   2d

to one’s surprise意为"使/让某人吃惊/惊讶的是"。其中surprise用作名词,意为"惊奇;意想不到的事"。

►To our surprise, Liu Wei played the piano by foot so well in China’s Got Talents Show. 令我们惊讶的是,在《中国达人秀》里,刘伟用脚弹钢琴弹得如此之好。

►I have a surprise for you. 我要告诉你一件意想不到的事。

【拓展】(1)in surprise惊奇地

►Rose looked at her mother in surprise. 罗丝惊奇地看着她母亲。

(2)be surprised at 对……感到吃惊。

►We are very surprised at the news. 我们对这个消息感到非常吃惊。

(3)be surprised to do sth. 做某事令人感到惊讶。

►I was surprised to see you here. 在这里见到你,我很惊讶。

【典例】—How was your life in England?

—Quite different from here. _________, people there drink tea with milk.

  1. In my opinion B. To my surprise C. At the beginning

【答案】B

Point 6 effort n. 努力;尽力    Page 75   3a

►All their efforts were in vain. 他们的努力全都白费了。

make an effort to do sth. 意为"努力做某事"。

►Please make an effort to finish it on time. 请努力按时完成。

【拓展】有关effort的常用短语:

make every effort to do sth. 尽一切努力做某事    spare no effort to do sth. 不遗余力地做某事

beyond effort 力所不能及    in a common effort 共同努力    without effort 毫不费力地,轻松地

Point 7 without prep. 无,没有    Page 75   3a

without后接名词、代词宾格或v-ing形式作宾语,其反义词为with。

►We got there without any trouble. 我们到了那儿,(一路上)没遇到任何麻烦。

►Can you finish your home work without him? 没有他,你能完成你的家庭作业吗?

►She left the room without saying a word. 她一句话没有说就离开了房间。

【拓展】(1)without可表条件,意为"如果没有,要没有"。

►Without water, we could not live. 没有水,我们就活不了。

(2)without后可接复合宾语(without+宾语+介词短语)。

►I don’t like sweet coffee; I like it better without sugar in it. 我不喜欢加糖的咖啡,里边不加糖我更喜欢。

【典例】The "teacher-free exam" means that students take their exams _________ teachers. Students must be more honest.

  1. without B. against                 C. through                D. by

【答案】A

【解析】句意:"无监考考试"意味着学生考试没有老师,学生们必须更诚实。without没有。

Point 8 something interesting 一些有趣的事情     Page 75   3a

当something, anything, nothing, everything等不定代词被形容词修饰时,形容词要放在不定代词后面。

►I have something important to tell you. 我有一些重要的事情要告诉你。

【助记】巧学不定代词:

不定代词不张扬,修饰成分后面藏;谓语动词用单数,何时何地都一样。
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【典例】—Is there _________ in today’s newspaper?

—No. I think everything in it is boring.

  1. interesting anything B. somebody interesting
  2. interesting something D. anything interesting

【答案】D

Point 9 take off 脱下(衣服);(飞机等)起飞;休假    Page 76   4a

take off意为"脱下(衣服)",反义词为put on,此时为及物动词短语,宾语若为代词必须置于中间。

►She hated the colour of the coat, so she took it off. 她不喜欢大衣的颜色,因此,她把它脱了下来。

【拓展】(1)take off可表示"(飞机等)起飞",此时为不及物动词短语。

►The plane will take off soon. 飞机很快就起飞。

(2)take off 意为"休假,休息"。

►I’ve decided to take a few days off next week. 我已决定下周休几天假。

【典例】You’re supposed to _________ your shoes before you enter the room.

  1. take off B. put off                         C. get off                  D. turn off

【答案】A

【解析】take off脱下;put off推迟;get off下车;turn off关掉、关上。take off your shoes脱掉你的鞋子。

Point 10 shake hands 握手

shake的意思是"摇动;(使)颤动;握(手)",其过去式为shook,过去分词为shaken。

"与某人握手"的表达法:

shake hands with sb

shake one’s hand

shake sb.by the hand

►They shook hands with each other and then sat down. 他们互相握手,然后坐下。

►He shook her hand warmly. 他热情地和她握手。

►I shook Jim by the hand. 我和吉姆握手。

【典例】用所给单词的正确形式完成句子

You are supposed to shake ________(hand) when you meet your friends.

【答案】hands

【解析】考查固定短语shake hands"握手"。

Point 11 greet/ɡriːt/ v. 和……打招呼;迎接

►The boy greeted his teacher with a smile.

那个男孩微笑着向他的老师打招呼。

①greet为及物动词,可直接接宾语,即greet sb."问候/迎接某人"。

②greet的第三人称单数形式为greets,过去式为greeted,过去分词为greeted,现在分词为greeting。

greet sb.的同义短语为"say hello to sb."。

【典例】Amy always ________ her classmates in a strange way.

  1. sees B. listens C. greets                       D. gives

【答案】C

Point 12 mistake/mɪ’steɪk/ n.错误

是可数名词,常用短语:make a mistake/mistakes(犯错误)。

►We all make mistakes. 我们所有人都会犯错。

【典例】Lisa was so careless that she made many spelling ________ in her homework.

  1. plans B. decisions
  2. grades D. mistakes

【答案】D

【解析】本题用辨析法解题。plan计划;decision决定;grade年级,等级;mistake 错误。句意:莉萨是如此粗心以至于她在她的家庭作业里犯了许多拼写错误。根据句意选择D。

by mistake 错误地,无意中,此处mistake前不加冠词。

【典例】根据汉语提示完成句子。

Sorry, I took your umbrella by ________(错误).

【答案】mistake

【解析】考查固定短语by mistake"错误地"。

Point 13 happen /’hæpən/ v. 发生

happen为不及物动词,不能用于被动语态。

►What’s happening? 发生了什么事?

【典例】Look, so many people are running out of the station. I wonder what ________.

  1. is happened B. was happening
  2. is happening D. had happened

【答案】C

►I happened to meet a friend of mine in the street yesterday. 昨天我碰巧在街上遇到了我的一个朋友。

【典例】Can you tell me what happened ________ him just now?

  1. with B. for                             C. to                     D. at

【答案】C

【解析】sth.happened to sb.为固定搭配,意为"某人发生了某事"。句意:你能告诉我他刚才发生了什么事吗?

Point 14 with/wɪð/ prep. 带有,

with结构多数充当状语,表示行为方式、伴随情况、原因或条件等。

【典例】—What would you like ________ your afternoon tea?

—Just a cup of coffee ________ some sugar and milk.

  1. of; with B. of; without C. for; with           D. for; without

【答案】C

【解析】考查介词的用法。此题采用排除法解题。of表示所属关系,应排除A和B;由题意知,想要一杯有糖和牛奶的咖啡,故选C。

with连接并列主语时,谓语动词的单复数由with前面的主语来定。

►His father with him is at home. 他和他的爸爸在家。

【典例】A woman with two children ________ along the street at the moment.

  1. is walking B. are walking
  2. walk D. walks

【答案】A

Point 15 surprise/sə’praɪz/ vt. 使吃惊;n .惊奇

形容词为:surprising令人吃惊的;surprised感到吃惊的。

►I was surprised to see him there. 我对在那儿看到他感到吃惊。

【典例】All of us were ___________(惊奇的) that such a little girl spoke English so well.

【答案】surprised

【解析】were是系动词,后接形容词,因为主语是人,所以用surprised。

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